Basic Infection Control Training Programme
Course Outline

Element I: Background of infection prevention and control (IP&C)

In this element you will learn about:

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

Upon completion of course work or training on this element, the learner will be able to:

  1. Outline the history of infection prevention and control.
  2. Describe the goals of infection prevention and control programs.
  3. Discuss how an IP&C program can make a positive impact in any healthcare organisation.
  4. Describe how the infection prevention and control is organised in health care.
  5. List the members of an infection control team.
  6. Outline the topics contained in a typical infection control manual.

ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 1.5 hours

CONTENT OUTLINE:

  1. History and overview
    • What is IP&C
    • Why is IP&C important
    • History of IP&C
    • Healthcare-associated Infections
    • Goals
    • Functions
    • Practices today
  2. IP&C Organisation
    • National and health care programs
    • Infection Control Committees
    • Infection Control Team
    • IC Officer/Doctor
    • IC Nurse
    • IC Link Nurse
    • IC Manual

 

Element II: Responsibility to adhere to principles and practices of infection prevention and control and to monitor performance.

 In this element you will learn about:

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

Upon completion of course work or training on this element, the learner will be able to:

  1. Describe the role of IP&C in patient safety programmes.
  2. List at least eight main elements of patient safety culture.
  3. For each element of patient safety culture, give at least one practical strategy for the IP&C professional.
  4. Identify the four stages of risk management for IP&C.
  5. Develop a system for setting priorities for action based on risk management.
  6. Explain the purpose or aims of surveillance.
  7. Discuss how to establish a system for healthcare-associated infection (HAI) surveillance.
  8. Differentiate between continuous surveillance and periodic prevalence surveys.
  9. Describe the epidemiology of HAIs.
  10. Summarise how agent, host and environmental factors affect the occurrence of HAIs.
  11. Outline the types of epidemiologic studies that can be used in HAI epidemiology.
  12. Explain the relevance of audit in IP&C practice.
  13. Identify audit tools and methods.
  14. Describe the main principles of audits.
  15. Explain how antibiotic use can select resistant strains of bacteria.
  16. Identify important mechanisms used by antibiotic stewardship programmes to decrease bacterial resistance in hospitals.
  17. Describe the roles of the microbiology laboratory and IP&C staff in the containment of bacterial resistance in healthcare.
  18.  Participate in the formation of an antibiotic stewardship programme.
  19. Describe the occurrence of disease in a population.
  20. Discuss how an epidemic curve can help in managing an outbreak.
  21. Outline the steps in outbreak investigation.
  22. Describe the financial impact that HAIs have on individuals and organisations.
  23. Outline the types of costs associated with HAIs.

 ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 6 hours

CONTENT OUTLINE:

  1. Microbiology (Français)

    1. Pathogenesis
    2. Transmission
    3. Bacteria
    4. Fungi
    5. Viruses
    6. Prions
    7. Parasites
    8. Laboratory role
    9. Microbiology services
    10. Diagnosis of infection
    11. Prevention and control of HAIs
    12. Outbreak investigation
    13. Surveillance
    14. Antibiotic policy, stewardship
    15. Interpreting data
    16. Education
  2. Pathogens
    1. Special pathogens
    2. B.M. tuberculosis
      1.  Transmission, pathogenesis
      2.  Risk factors
      3.  Management
      4.  Control measures
    3. C. difficile
      1.  Pathology
      2.  Colonisation, transmission
      3.  Control measures
    4. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus
      1. Transmission
      2. Control measures
    5. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus
      1. Epidemiology
      2. Transmission
      3. Control measures
    6. Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria
      1.  Resistance mechanisms
      2.  Epidemiology
      3.  Transmission
      4.  Control measures

 

Element IV: Use of engineering and work practice controls and preventive practices to reduce the opportunity for exposure to potentially contaminated material and infected patients.       

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
Upon completion of course work or training on this element, the learner will be able to:

      1. Describe the relevance of hand hygiene for IP&C.
      2. Discuss strategies to improve hand hygiene compliance.
      3. Compare products available for hand hygiene.
      4. Explain current recommendations on hand hygiene practice.
      5. Explain the rationale for isolation precautions.
      6. Outline the types and indications of isolation precautions.
      7. List the types of personal protective equipment used in isolation precautions.
      8. Summarise the functioning of peritoneal dialysis (PD) and haemodialysis (HD).
      9. Review infection risks associated with PD and HD procedures.
      10. Design infection prevention and control measures for PD and HD patients.
      11. Explain the relevance of pneumonia in health care institutions.
      12. Outline elements for defining HAI pneumonia.
      13. Identify risk factors for pneumonia.
      14. Describe the measures for prevention of pneumonia.
      15. Identify special populations and their specific features
      16. Describe specific risk factors of each special population that make it vulnerable to HAIs.
      17. For any special population, outline additional methods for the prevention of HAIs.
      18. Describe the role of infection prevention and control in maternal child health.
      19. Identify potential infection risks in this setting.
      20. Explain practices for prevention and control of infection for these patients.
      21. Describe the relevance of urinary tract infections in health care institutions.
      22. Identify risk factors for urinary tract infections.
      23. Describe measures for prevention.
      24. Describe the relevance and impact of intravascular device-associated infections.
      25.  Identify infection sources and routes of transmission for intravascular infections.
      26.  Outline the main recommendations to prevent those infections.
      27. Explain the relevance and impact of SSI.
      28. Identify the risk factors associated with SSI.
      29. Describe the main recommendations to prevent SSI.
      30. List the types of microorganisms that can cause gastrointestinal infections (GI) associated with health care facilities.
      31. Define diarrhoea.
      32. Identify risk factors for GI infections.
      33. Outline methods to prevent GI infections.

ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 7.5 hours

 CONTENT OUTLINE:

      1. Hand hygiene
        1. Background
        2. Skin flora
        3. Hand contamination
        4. Compliance
        5. Products, selection
        6. Techniques
        7. When to perform
        8. Glove use
        9. Skin care
        10. Improvement strategies
        11. Guidelines
        12. Recommendations
      2. Isolation precautions
        1. Transmission of infections
        2. Principles
        3. Standard precautions
        4. Transmission-based precautions
        5. Essential components
        6. Considerations
        7. Recommendations
        8. Guidelines
      3. Dialysis
        1. Background
        2. Peritoneal dialysis
        3. Haemodialysis
        4. Definitions
        5. Transmission of infection
        6. Diagnosis
        7. Infection risks
        8. IP&C principles
        9. Prevention
      4. Lower respiratory infections
        1. Background
        2. Diagnosis
        3. Surveillance
        4. Ventilation
        5. Pathogenesis
        6. Risk factors
        7. Agents
        8. Prevention
      5. Special populations
        1. IP&C strategies
        2. Geriatrics
          1.  Risk factors
          2. Prevention
        3. Paediatrics
          1. Risk factors
          2. Prevention
        4. Burns
        5. Behavioural health
          1. Risks
          2. Prevention
        6. Ambulatory/community health
          1. Risks
          2. Prevention
        7. Immunocompromised populations
          1. Risks
          2. Prevention
        8. Endoscopy
          1. Risks
          2. Endoscopes
          3. Prevention
      6. Maternal-child
        1. Background
        2. Neonatal risk factors
        3. Neonatal/infant infections
        4. Maternal risk factors
        5. Maternal infections
        6. Prevention strategies
        7. Infectious disease management
      7. Urinary tract infections
        1. Introduction
        2. Diagnosis
        3. Microbiology
        4. Surveillance
        5. Pathogenesis
        6. Prevention
      8. Bloodstream infections
        1. Introduction
        2. Contamination sites
        3. Transmission
        4. Peripheral site prevention
        5. Central site prevention
      9. Surgical site infections
        1. Background
        2. Transmission
        3. Patient risk factors
        4. Operative risk factors
        5. Environmental risk factors
        6. Surveillance
        7. Risk stratification
        8. Prevention
      10. GI infections
        1. Definitions
        2. Foodborne outbreaks
        3. Gastroenteritis
        4. Prevention
        5. C. difficile
        6. Food hygiene
        7. Hazard analysis critical control points
        8. Kitchen precautions
        9. Audits

 

Element V: Creation and maintenance of a safe environment through application of infection prevention and control principles and practices.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
At the conclusion of course work or training on this element, the learner will be able to:

      • Identify the role of infection prevention and control in environmental services, housekeeping, and laundry settings.
      • Outline the role of chemicals, training, and work practices in IP&C.
      • Explain the importance of the environment in IP&C.
      • Differentiate between disinfection and sterilisation.
      • Explain different types of sterilisation.
      • Outline the process for cleaning patient care items.
      • Describe the role of IP&C in water hygiene.
      • Identify different methods to make water safe for health care use.
      • Explain the importance of the safe water in IP&C.
      • Describe the various types of waste in health care.
      • Outline the sources that result in health-care waste.
      • Segregate the healthcare waste appropriately.
      • List the options for waste treatment.
      • Describe the role of IP&C in construction/renovation projects.
      • Define engineering, environmental and work practice controls.
      • Explain the importance of the environment in IP&C.
      • Identify potential building-related infection risks.

ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 4.5 hours

CONTENT OUTLINE:

      1. Housekeeping/laundry
        1. Sources of infection
        2. The environment
        3. Cleaning
        4. Disinfection
        5. Cleaning schedule
        6. Laundry services
        7. Sorting linen
        8. Linen transport
        9. Washing linen
        10. Storage and packaging
        11. Role of IP&C
      2. Cleaning, disinfection, sterilisation
        1. Decontamination
        2. Cleaning
        3. Spaulding classification
        4. Disinfection
          1.  High-level
          2.  Intermediate-level
          3.  Low-level
          4.  Types of disinfectants
        5. Sterilisation
          1. Steam
          2. Low temperature
          3. Flash
          4. Dry heat
          5. Ethylene oxide
          6. Gas plasma
        6. Fumigation
        7. Pasteurisation
        8. Filtration
        9. Other processing method
        10. Monitoring
          1. Chemical
          2. Biological
        11. Staff training
        12. Single use items
        13. IP&C priorities
      3. Water hygiene
        1. Background
        2. Illnesses related to water
        3. Health care water
        4. Biofilm
        5. Safe water
          1.  Boiling
          2.  Chlorination
          3.  Filtration
        6. Storage
        7. Plumbing
        8. Dialysis water
        9. Prevention
        10. Water analysis
        11. Legionella
        12. IP&C activities
      4. Waste Management
        1. Definitions
          • Sources
          • Collection
          • Containers
          • Transport
          • Storage
          • Treatment
          • Disposal
          • Training
      5. Construction
        1. Infection risks
        2. Transmission
        3. Design issues
          1. Rooms
          2. Hand hygiene
          3. Floors and surfaces
          4. Utilities
          5. Ventilation
        4. Barrier use
        5. Medical equipment
        6. Food, laundry, waste
        7. IP&C team
        8. Recommendations
            1.  Design of a general ward
            2.  Protection of immunocompromised patients during building work
            3.  Emergency Unit
            4.  Design of Intensive Care Units
            5.  Design of a surgery block
            6.  Ventilation to prevent airborne transmission

 

Element VI: Prevention and management of infectious diseases in healthcare workers.

      • Bloodborne pathogens
      • Occupational health

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
Upon completion of course work or training on this element, the learner will be able to:

      1. List causes of bloodborne pathogen infections.
      2. Outline risk reduction measures for healthcare workers.
      3. Identify methods for reducing risk of bloodborne infections in patients.
      4. Recognize infection health hazards for healthcare workers.
      5. Explain the use of an occupational infection risk evaluation.
      6. Outline methods of reducing occupational risk of infection for healthcare workers.

ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 1.5 hours

CONTENT OUTLINE:

    1. Bloodborne

      1. Viruses
      2. Healthcare worker exposures
      3. Patient exposures
      4. Risk reduction
        1. Safety devices
        2. Containers
        3. Personal protective equipment
        4. Injection safety
      5. Monitoring
      6. Prevention
      7. Recommendations
      8. Patient risk reduction
    2. Occupational Health
      1. Health hazards
      2. Elements
      3. Assessments
      4. Infection risks
      5. Risk evaluations
      6. Risk reduction
      7. Needle-stick injuries
      8. Blood-borne pathogens
      9. Tuberculosis